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The Hall China Company grew out of the aftermath of the failure of the East Liverpool Pottery Company in East Liverpool, Ohio when Robert Hall took full ownership of the manufacturing plant from his partners in the former company as his share in the bankruptcy dissolution of the company in 1903. East Liverpool Pottery Company itself had been the result of a 1901 merger of 5 other local East Liverpool potteries. With this asset, James Hall reincorporated as the Hall China Company and first began producing china bearing the Hall china trademarks. As he prepared his plans for recovery of the company, James Hall died in 1904 just one year after buying out his partners and taking sole ownership. Upon James Hall's death, his son Robert Taggart Hall took over the company that only recently had taken on his name. Interested in the manufacturing process, Robert Hall along with production manager Robert Meakin began experimenting with glazes seeking a compound that could stand up to a higher heat during the firing process and could thus resist crazing even with a single firing. Almost 10 years of experimentation had not produced a successful glaze that could stand up to a single-fire process, and the company floundered trying to produce standard white china at a profit in the competitive environment of the industrial revolution. 

During this time, Hall mostly sold smaller china accessories such as mugs, jugs, bed pans, and other utilitarian wares under the leadership of sales manager Francis Simmers. Dinnerware was first introduced in 1908 but was only manufactured until 1914, at which time dinnerware production was suspended until later reintroduced in 1936. The company was struggling and needed some stylistic or manufacturing innovation to differentiate Hall from the proliferation of competitors small and large. It had become clear that a leadless glaze was required to achieve their objectives, for lead could not withstand the heat necessary for bisque firing. Soon after Jackson Moore took over as production manager following the retirement of Robert Meakin, Hall and Moore first had success in 1911 producing a leadless glaze, first in small quantities and subsequently in larger volumes as they learned to regulate the heat and perfect the process. The result was china that was durable and crazeproof, and it proved very popular with the public and could be offered at affordable prices due to the manufacturing efficiency. 

The years of World War I in Europe created business opportunities for Hall China, for the European potteries and especially the English, French, and German manufacturers that had previously dominated the American market were  no longer able to ship. Hall focused on industrial strength chinaware that could be sold to the government, restaurants, and other institutions as well as utilitarian wares such as teapots, coffee pots, and casserole dishes. The single-fire process and the durability of the resulting finish proved a huge competitive advantage to Hall as their cookware was exposed to cooks large and small. Francis Simmers became so important in the sales and marketing of Hall China that he and Robert Hall alternated the presidency of the company until Hall's death in 1920 when Simmers became sole President. Hall also grew through acquisition, buying the Goodwin Pottery Co. of New York in 1919, and soon thereafter they introduced their consumer retail teapots and other accessories with gilding and other flourishes not previously affordable to the middle class. Hall China advertising emphasized the nonabsorbent, smooth, and durable finish of their single-fire manufacturing process, coupling it with tips for owners on how to brew the perfect tea. By 1923, Hall China advertising was claiming the title for Hall as "World's Largest Manufacturer of Fireproof Cooking China." More factories soon opened, with a third plant completed in 1927 which was used to produce soda fountain jars and retail teapots and chinaware, and an entirely new factory was opened in 1930 which provided over 170,000 sq. feet of manufacturing space and enabled them to use all new equipment and subsequently close the previous 3 plants. The new plant used the latest in production line manufacturing and firing technology, gas fired and incorporating three separate kilns for different finishes. Dinnerware sets were reintroduced in 1936 after a 22 year hiatus. All of this line expansion resulted in further expansion needs in the new factory, with several additions to the building taking total square footage up to 375,000 s. feet and the addition of 4 new kilns. 

The years of the 1930s leading up to World War II presented another set of challenges for the company, and they adapted by producing advertising "premiums" for merchants such as Grand Union, General Electric, Great American Tea Co. Standard Coffee, Hotpoint, and the Jewel Tea Company. The Autumn Leaf pattern produced for Jewel Tea and the Red Poppy pattern produced for Grand Union were two of the most popular lines Hall China ever produced, and collector interest in these patterns remains very strong. These lines were the first where Hall produced a full range of dinnerware and accessories such as salt and pepper shakers, canister sets, butter dishes, ashtrays, baking dishes, flower pots, custard dishes, cookie jars, refrigerator containers, and more. The company also adopted vibrant colors in these premium lines, especially their refrigerator jars made for GE Sears, Hotpoint, and others which had names like Cobalt, Daffodil, Sunset, and Chinese Red. After World War II, Hall engaged the services of some outside designers including most notably J. Palin Thorley and Eva Zeisel. Zeisel designs for Hall China have particular interest among collectors including Tomorrow's Classic (1949) and Century (1956). Other popular patterns from the mid-century include Blue Blossom, Blue Garden, Wildfire, Taverne, Meadow Flower, Granitone, and Rose Parade. Hall is particularly well known for their kitchenware such as teapots, which were produced in a fascinating array of styles, shapes, colors, and glazes such as Nautilus, Aladdin, and others- with some styles made in over 20 different colors. Hall China continues in operation today, having survived ups and downs over the years but still enjoying success with its restaurant and commercial grade china, still celebrated for the quality and durability of its fireproof cooking china and by numerous Hall China collecting clubs around the world.

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Collector's Encyclopedia of Hall China Homer Laughlin China: "A Giant Among Dishes" 1873-1939
Art Deco: 1910-1939
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